What are Over-the-Counter (OTC) Drugs?
Over the Counter Drugs
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to consumers without prescriptions from healthcare professionals. They are readily available at grocery, convenience, and drug stores.
Some common OTC medicines are pseudoephedrine, dextromethorphan, loperamide, acetaminophen, diphenhydramine, methamphetamine, Tylenol, and numerous antihistamines, pain relievers, cough syrups, cough suppressants, decongestants, and a range of cough medicines and allergy medications.
Contrary to popular belief, OTC drugs are not harmless. Some are addictive and potentially dangerous, especially when abused, or not taken as directed. Over-the-counter drug abuse is most common among children and teens.
Types of abused OTC drugs
The most commonly abused over-the-counter contain the active ingredient DXM (dextromethorphan), which is used to treat symptoms of the common cold and flu. When abused, DXM produces euphoria.
Short-term effects of DXM abuse are:
- impaired judgment
- distortion of visual perception
- loss of coordination
- numbness of extremities
- irregular heartbeat
- increased blood pressure
- panic attacks
- cold or hot flashes
Long-term DXM abuse can cause:
- death, in certain cases
Over-the-counter drug abuse also occurs with weight loss medications, like laxatives, diuretics, emetics (drugs that produce vomiting) and diet pills. While many use them to lose weight, dangerous and addictive ingredients—such as ephedrine, caffeine and phenylpropranolamine—can eventually lead to dependence and addiction. Even herbal diet pills, which are considered natural, are dangerous. All weight loss products, even over-the-counter weight loss drugs, have stimulant effects on the central nervous system.
Side effects of over-the-counter weight-loss drug abuse include:
- hair loss
- disruption of menses in females
- urinary tract infections
- blurred vision
Other frequently abused over-the-counter drugs include pain relievers (often taken in excess when the initial dosage is ineffective); motion sickness pills (which cause hallucinations when taken in extremely high doses); and sexual performance enhancers (to counteract the effects of alcohol on sexual performance).
Risks associated with over-the-counter drug abuse.
It is very unsafe to abuse over-the-counter drugs, or take them in quantities or for purposes other than those indicated. Doing so could cause overdose and death, dangerous drug interactions, and/or worsen medical problems. Not to mention, abusing over-the-counter drugs can lead to severe legal and professional consequences, including arrests for inappropriate behavior, loss of drivers license and loss of job. For these reasons, it is important to check with medical professionals before taking over-the-counter drugs.
Signs and symptoms of over-the-counter drug abuse.
Parents and family members should be on the lookout for the warning signs of over-the-counter drug abuse. They include:
- missing medications
- negative performance at school or work
- changes in hobbies and interests
- visits to Internet sites that contain information on how to abuse over-the-counter drugs to get high
- disrupted sleeping patterns
- changes in friends
- bad track-record with relationships
- changes in appearance and hygiene
f you suspect that someone you care for is struggling with over-the-counter drug abuse, there is hope. Immediate intervention and treatment will prevent long-term health consequences. Explore Caron’s treatment programs or contact us for more information.
A typical course of over-the-counter drug addiction treatment.
Addiction treatment for over-the-counter (OTC) drugs varies depending on the type of drug one is addicted to. Since most over-the-counter drugs are abused by teenagers, family involvement is essential to the treatment process.
The first step in an effective treatment program is to assess the needs of the patient. In addition to their physical addiction, behavioral, social, scholastic, familial and health factors should be taken into account when designing a treatment plan.
Once a comprehensive, holistic addiction treatment plan is in place, patients usually begin the detox process. Withdrawal symptoms vary depending on the type, duration and severity of addiction to over-the-counter drugs and can be very difficult for patients to endure. Medically monitored detox is recommended, especially since severe symptoms can occasionally be prevented or managed with medication.
The next step in treatment is usually some form of behavioral therapy, which teaches patients how to cope with cravings, avoid situations that might trigger use and deal with potential relapses. It also addresses underlying issues, such as depression, anxiety, learning disabilities or multiple addictions.
Once addiction treatment is complete, an aftercare program or follow-up plan should be established to prevent relapse.
The importance of inpatient addiction treatment.
While outpatient treatment is effective under some circumstances, inpatient treatment programs have higher success rates, because they remove the patient from the environment in which the problem started and provide a therapeutic setting where they can focus solely on recovery.